Thursday, October 29, 2015

The Mysterious Midrash

The parsha begins with Avraham Avinu sitting at the doorway of his tent awaiting the opportunity to invite guests in for a meal and, perhaps, teach them of Hashem's ways. The Torah tells us that Avraham was sitting there in the heat of the day. (Bereishis 18:1) Rashi cites from a Midrash that Hashem took the sun out of its shield in order for its rays to be more powerful. Thus, the day was unnaturally hot. Since the pasuk says that it was in the heat of the day, it must mean that it was an unnatural heat. What exactly could this Midrash be referring to when it mentions that the sun was taken out of its shield? Also, why are we to assume that the wording of, "in the heat of the day," means an unnatural heat, maybe it just means during the hottest part of the day?

By analyzing a perplexing passage from Rabbeinu Bacheye's commentary to this portion one can, perhaps, gain better insight. Rabbeinu Bacheye cites a Midrash that Avraham was sitting at the doorway at the fourth hour of the day. This is the a time when, historically, people would be hungry and looking for a meal. Therefore, Avraham wished to capitalize on this opportunity to find a wayfarer in need of a meal and invite him in. It is unclear what Midrash Rabbeinu Bacheye is citing from because we do not seem to have anything that expresses this point. Additionally, this Midrash appears to be in conflict with the Gemara in Berachos (27a) that seems to state that Avraham was sitting there at midday. Why would Rabbeinu Bacheye choose to convey the message of an obscure Midrash as opposed to the Gemara's interpretation?

The Gemara cited above is trying to determine how much of the day can be considered morning. At one point it cites a verse that states that when the sun is hot it will melt the manna and this is applied to the beginning of the fourth hour. The Gemara challenges this by asking that perhaps it means until midday since the sun continues to heat up until that point. To this the Gemara cites the pasuk from our parsha and says that since our pasuk is referring to midday, the pasuk referring to the sun's heat must mean until the fourth hour. Rashi explains that the pasuk from our parsha mentions that the day is hot as opposed to the other pasuk which mentions that the sun is hot. The implications of our pasuk are that it is not just the areas in direct sunlight that are hot, but even areas that are normally shady are hot since the pasuk says, "the heat of the day," and not, "the heat of the sun." Once we find that the Torah uses two forms of expression when referring to the heating of the sun and day, the Gemara concludes that the two must be referring to different times of the day. The one mentioning when the sun is hot is not as hot as the one that mentions that the day is hot.

Perhaps, the above understanding can help answer all the above questions. The normal implications of the wording of our pasuk indicate a time when even shady areas are hot and this is midday because the sun is high in the sky and the actual shadows are relatively small. This leaves a significant area that is normally covered in shade to be exposed to the heat of the sun. This time is called in the "heat of the day." Since this language is conveying this message, the other pasuk cited in Berachos refers to the fourth hour which is when the sunny areas begin to feel hot, thus it is called, "the sun's heat." It is important to note that it is irrelevant to the Gemara whether or not the time period discussed in the pasuk in our parsha was actually midday. The Gemara is just proving that it is referring to a time when both sunny and shady areas are hot. This would normally occur at midday and that means that the other pasuk must refer to the fourth hour. However, since Hashem took the sun out of its shield it is possible that the phenomenon of shady areas being hot actually happened earlier and it just felt like midday. The Torah is just letting us know where the sun was positioned and not how many hours of the day had passed.

Rabbainu Bacheye's Midrash provides the logic upon which it is based. Avraham would sit in the doorway at the most opportune time. Since people are hungry at the fourth hour, it stands to reason that this event happened at that time. If so, how could it be that the pasuk uses language to tell us that the heat was equal to that of midday, the pasuk should have stated that the sun was hot since this is less extreme? This would seem to be where the Midrash that Rashi cites starts from. It must be that Hashem took the sun out of its shield, meaning that he raised it higher in the sky so that the rays were more direct and there were fewer shadows. The heat was comparable to midday, but the actual time was only the fourth hour. Thus, Rabbeinu Bacheye, the Midrash cited by Rashi, and the Gemara all complement each other as opposed to contradict one another. I apologize if this was confusing, this is not normally the style in which these posts are written. I just found it pretty amazing that the elusive identity of the Midrash of Rabbeinu Bacheye might actually be a Midrash that was in plain sight!!!

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