Friday, January 31, 2020

Korban Pesach in the Sky

I have been told in the past that I am probably the only person who finds Divrei Torah on Parshas Bo that are about astronomy and have nothing to do with the mitzvah of Kiddush HaChodesh. (For example, did you ever wonder which star Paaraoh was referencing when he said, "Ra'ah is against you ...," or did you recognize that the verse that says that no dogs barked at the Jews is also discussing an astronomical event that was significant to the Egyptian people of that time? These ideas are discussed at length in my new book, The Secrets of the Stars, available here.) In order to hold my unique title I would like to share a few thoughts about a fascinating comment by the Rokeach regarding the Korbon Pesach.

The pasuk informs us that the Pesach had to be a male ovine creature, but that it could be either a sheep or a goat. (Shemos 12:5) The Rokeach teaches that these two choices symbolized the astronomical events that occured on that miraculous night in Egypt.

Every month the sun appears to be in a different place in the sky relative to the background stars. In fact, every month it has moved from being juxtaposed in front of one constellation and then appears to be occupying another. For example, in the month of Nisan it is in the constellation T'leh (Aries, the Ram), but in the month Iyar it has moved to the constellation Shor (Taurus, the Ox). Since when the sun is visible it is daytime, this means that the constellation that the sun is occupying will be rising with the sun. This is considered to be the mazal of the month. (Rashi Berachos 11b; these positions have shifted since ancient times and no longer does the sun occupy these positions in these specific months) In the month of Nisan, the one of the Pesach years ago, the mazal that rose at sunrise, and was therefore perceived to be in control, was that of T'leh. Additionally, says the Rokeach, if one takes the numerical value of the Hebrew word T'leh and that for blood, "Dam", he will find that they are equal. (Rokeach Shemos 12:5)

The Rokeach continues to describe more about the celestial happenings and symbolism of that night. Every two hours another mazal appears to be rising from the east as the sun (and background stars) makes its way across the sky from east to west. On the night of the Pesach of Egypt the constellation that was rising from the east at nightfall was Moznayim (Libra, the Scales). At midnight, the time that Hashem exacted judgment on the Egyptians and killed their firstborns, the mazal rising from the east was G'di (Capricorn[us], the Goat). Thus, we find that T'leh and G'di were in positions of power during this plague and we therefore serve Hashem by offering these two animals, sheep and goats in His service. Additionally, blood (the numerical equivalent of T'leh as stated above) symbolizes the planet Mars and that is a representation of death and blood and it was at this time that death and murder was happening in Egypt.(Ibid.)

Perhaps, there is more symbolism than just what was stated above. Besides the T'leh, G'di, and Mars being expressed; it would seem that Moznayim, the Scales, were also displaying something very important. Just like the mazal that rises at daybreak is considered to have influence, so too, the one that rises in the evening is considered to exert some force. The mazal of Moznayim is symbolic of the scales of judgment and this evening certainly was one of judgment. (Midrash Tanchuma Haazinu 1)

Even more is that there are seven ancient planets: the sun, moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Of these they can be split into two categories, the sun and moon in one and the other five planets in the other. Each of these entities is considered to rule over one (or two) of the 12 mazalos of the zodiac. Twelve obviously does not divide by seven evenly, so the method is not to give every planet an equal amount of mazalos to rule over. The sun and moon are each given one and the rest of the planets have two a piece. Mars has T'leh (Aries) as one of its mazalos. (Ibn Ezra Reishis Chachma 2) So, in addition to T'leh being powerful, its ruler (and planet whose symbolic expression of blood has an equivalent numerical value to itself) was also finding its expression.

Also of interest is where Mars was positioned that fateful night. Mars was to be found in the constellation D'li (Aquarius, the Water Bearer). D'li is the mazal of Klal Yisrael. (Ibn Ezra Shemos 31:18) The Rokeach teaches us that when the destructive deathly force of that night, the Mashchis, saw the blood of the Pesach on the doorposts he was confused and believed that death had struck those houses and he therefore turned away. (Rokeach Shemos 12:5) Mars and its death were prepared to strike even Klal Yisrael, in whose constellation Mars was occupying, but through the Dam, blood, of the mitzvah were saved